浅谈萱草及其在明清官窑瓷上的应用

A brief introduction of Daylily and Daylily motifs on the imperial ceramics of Ming and Qing dynasties

刊登于 2006 年第 8 期《收藏界》 Published in "Collection World" 2006
萱草园主人 初稿时间 2003/11/06 First edition by Master of Daylily Garden Forum (DGF) 2003/11/06
最后修改时间 2006/06/19 Final updated 2006/06/19
翻译:邢真 translator:Zhen Xing2014/01/08

《前言》 Foreword

2003年11月6日初稿的文章,后来在不少网站转载,似乎成了笔者的代表作。近日再看原文,感觉内容太少且无条理,于是重新整理修改了一下,......。

This article, first drafted on November 6 th , 2003 and reprinted by many websites afterwards, seems to be regarded as one of my masterpieces. When rereading this article recently, however, I found it failed to give satisfactory information and system, which urged me to replenish the content and adjust the restructure.

《正文》 Text

一.萱草简介 Introduction of Daylily

萱草属于百合科的多年生宿根草本植物,每逢春天自丛生的地下球茎中发芽,5-7月份抽茎开花。萱草花色种类繁多,花瓣可分单瓣(图1、2)、重瓣(图3)等,多不结果。从我国古代资料看,萱草自古雅俗共赏,被人广为栽培。由于它涉及领域宽广,因此别名甚多,如《诗经·卫风·伯兮》中称其为“谖草”,《救荒本草》称其“川草花”,《古今注》称“丹棘”,《说文》为“忘忧草”,《本草纲目》为“疗愁”,还有诸如“萱芎”、“宜男草”等,现代人则对“金针花”、“黄花菜”等俗名较为熟悉。

Daylily (Hemerocallis) is placed in perennial herb of the Liliaceae. Every spring Daylily germinates from underground corm, and will flower in May to July. Daylily cultivar flowers are highly diverse in color and form. Some are uni-petalled (picture 1.2) and others multiple- petalled (picture 3). Usually, Daylily will not fruit. According to Chinese ancient articles, Daylily has gained many devoted admirers around the country and been widely cultivated for a long history. Because of its diversity, Daylily has many aliases. which include "nepenthe grass"( 谖草 ) in "Book of Songs"( 《诗经》 ) , "creek flower"( 川草花 ) in " Herbal for Relief of Famines "( 《救荒本草》 ) , “ red thorn ” in " Notes to things old and new " (《古今注》) , "forget sorrow flower"in “ Origin of Chinese Characters ” ( 《说文解字》 ), " treatment of worry" in "Compendium of Materia Medica" (《本草纲目》) . , and others like “ Xuan Xiong ” or “ Boy flower ” . For the moderns, maybe “ Jin Zhen Hua ” or “ Huang Hua Cai ” are more popular names.

1.“母亲花”说 Regarding as "Mother flower"

《诗经疏》称:“北堂幽暗,可以种萱”。“北堂”(又做“萱堂”)是古代士大夫家主妇常居住之处,后来指母亲居室,常用它来代表母亲。 叶梦得《遣模归按视石林》诗中:“白发萱堂上,孩儿更共怀。”中的“萱草”就代母亲。

子曰:“父母在,不远游,游必有方。”不少游子远行前会在北堂种植萱草,希望母亲在春暖花开时节看到萱草盛开,以便减轻对远方遊子的思念,忘却忧伤。唐朝诗人孟郊(字东野)早年生活贫困,屡试不第时曾周游湖北、湖南、广西等地。常年在外使他对遊子的感受极为深刻,所作《遊子吟》流传至今,诗中写到:“慈母手中线,遊子身上衣。临行密密缝,意恐迟迟归。谁言寸草心,报得三春晖。”其中的“寸草”即是遊子临行前为母亲种植的萱草,期待日后开花慰藉母心。他的另一首《遊子诗》同样脍炙人口:“萱草生堂階,遊子行天涯。慈母倚堂门,不见萱草花。”,二首都提及了慈母、遊子与萱草三者的相互关系,基本表达了同一中心思想。

把萱草做为母亲花的诗词还有王冕的《偶书》:“今朝风日好,堂前萱草花。持杯为母寿,所喜无喧哗。”,相关实例较多,此处不一一列举。

The Commentary on Book of Songs 《诗经疏》 said Daylily is suitable to be planted in the north hall of the house because it is shady. "North hall ( 北堂 )"or "Daylily hall ( 萱堂 )" is where the housewife lives in a typical ancient Chinese Scholar family. As time goes by, "Daylily hall” became the imagery of mother. In the poem 《遣模归按视石林》 ( by Yemengde 叶梦得 an poet in song dynasty) the poet said " gray-haired mother in the Daylily hall, and grand children in her arms " is the good example.

Confucius( 孔子) said " While your parents are alive, you should not go too far afield in your travels. If you do, your whereabouts should always be known. " So in ancient China when young men decide to leave home for education or travel, they will plant Daylily in the North hall, with the hope that the bloomed daylilies would comfort their worried mothers . Menjiao ( an famous poet in Tang dynasty) wrote an famous poem 《遊子吟》 , it said:

A thread is in my fond mother's hand moving.
For her son to wear the clothes were leaving.
With her whole heart she's sewing and sewing.
For fear I'll e'er be roving and roving.
Who says the little soul of grass waving.
Could for the warmth repay the sun of spring.

The "grass" in the poem refers to the Daylily. Another poem by him is also famous:

Daylily bore on the steps of the hall

When boys grow up they travel to the whole world

mother snuggled on the hall door

Daylily go with the son to the whole world

So both poems have shown the relationship between daylily, son and mother in ancient China.

Another poem 《偶书》( by Wangmian 王冕 an poet in Yuan Dynasty) also use the Daylily to refer to Mother:

Whether of today is well

Daylily flours beautifully fount of the hall

let us cheer for out Mother`s wealthy

But it should be quite and quite

Actually we can find so many examples in Chinese history.

2.“宜男草”说 Regarding as "Boy flower"

据传古代民间有妇女怀孕时在胸前佩戴萱草花就会生男孩之说,因此萱草又有“宜男草”之称。三国时期魏国诗人曹植曾写到:“草号宜男,既烨且贞。其贞伊何?惟乾之嘉。其烨伊何? 绿叶丹华。光彩晃曜,配彼朝日。君子耽乐,好合琴瑟。”《吴谱》一书成书于三国时期,其中也有:“小院闲阶玉砌,墙隈半簇兰芽。 一庭萱草石榴,多子宜男爱插。”以上词赋足以体现当时民间的“萱草宜男”习俗。

唐代宫廷内外也流行该求子习俗。玄宗时,兴庆宫中栽种的萱草多种多样,有人作诗:“清萱到处碧鬖鬖,兴庆宫前色倍含。借问皇家何种此?太平天子要宜男。”

According to an ancient Chinese legend, pregnant woman will give birth to a boy if she wears daylily as a broach. The legend gives daylily another name as “ boy flower ” . Caozhi (曹植) , an famous poet in The Three Kingdoms period, once w rote :

Call it boy flower

Splendid and chaste

How chaste

Like the goodness of the God

How splendid

Because of its green leaf and red flower

Glorious like the sun

Ideal person to indulge in pleasure

Like the music of guqin and se

Wupu 《吴谱》 , which was written in the same period of Chinese history, has the sentences like this:

Courtyard with the jade step

Orchid in the corner of the courtyard wall

Daylily and Pomegranate grows all around the courtyard

Wish you can have more children and son

These two poems are the good example of the "Boy flower" culture about Daylily in ancient China

In Tang dynasty it was also popular to plant Daylily in the Palace to pray for the boy. Someone made a poem like that

Fresh Daylily grows everywhere and make the palace more beautiful.

Why the imperial family plant them?

Because the world is peaceful and more boys is good for them.

3.“忘忧草”说 Regarding as "forget sorrow flower"

由于母亲见到遊子临行前为自己种植的萱草可以忘却思儿忧愁,于是该草又做“谖草”,“谖”即“忘”,俗称“忘忧草”。唐代李在《萱》诗中写到:“屣步寻芳草,忘忧自结丛。黃英开养性,绿叶正依笼。色湛仙人露,香传少女风。还依北堂下,曹植动文雄。”该诗中就是将其作为“忘忧草”来描述的。

Because the Daylily can reduce the sorrow of mother, when their son leave them to travel so it also be called as "forget flower " ( 谖草 ), " 谖 " means "forget". Li Qiao 李峤 (poet of Dang dynasty) wrote an poem “ 屣步寻芳草,忘忧自结丛。黃英开养性,绿叶正依笼。色湛仙人露,香传少女风。还依北堂下,曹植动文雄。 ” in this poem Daylily is called " forget sorrow flower".

4.药用与食用 used as medicine and food

古代不少医药书中也介绍过萱草的忘忧药用功能,例如《本草注》中称:“萱草味甘,令人好戏,乐而忘忧”;《本草求真》谓:“萱草味甘而气微凉,能去湿利水,除热通淋,止渴消烦,开胸宽膈。令人心平气和,无有忧郁。”等。不仅萱草药用效果如何,当其花蕾在含苞待放时采摘下来,还可以制成鲜美的菜肴,这就是人们最常说的“黄花菜”或“金针菜”了。

Some ancient Chinese medical books introduced that Daylily can be used as nepenthe, The Annotation of Compendium of Materia Medica 《本草注》 said: "Daylily tastes slightly sweet and can make people happy and relieve the depression. The truth of the Herbal 《本草求真》 said :"Daylily is sweet and cool in nature, can be used as formula for dieresis, diffusing dampness, desiccating, in addition to treat stranguria, reduce the thirst and anxiety, make people peaceful and not be depressed."

No matter how effective as a medicine, Daylily has been a delicious ingredient in Chinese cuisine, or we can say, the “ Jin Zhen Hua” or “Huang Hua Cai” on any common Chinese dining table..

图1:黄色萱草。P1: Yellow Daylily

图2:红色萱草。P2: Red Daylily

图3:桔黄重瓣萱草。P3: Multiple-petalled Orange Daylily

二.萱草在历代绘画中的使用 Appearance in the ancient Chinese paintings

在音信、交通不便的古代,萱草俨然是联系母子情感的一条无形纽带。当游子远离父母时,母亲见到游子临行前所植萱草茁壮成长、灿烂盛开,心中必定产生强烈的见花如见子效果。同样,浪迹天涯的游子想到母亲日夜陪伴萱草也会在心理上得到极大宽慰与鼓舞。

In ancient China, limited by bad transportation and lack of communication, Daylily was highlighted as an invisible connection between a mother and her traveling children. After children leave the home, if Daylily grows and flowers well, mother will put a strong emotion on the Daylily and regard them as her children. Meanwhile the children also will be consoled and encouraged.

儒家学说的创始人孔子曾说:“夫孝,天之经也,地之义也,民之行也。”为了维护统治,历代帝王也都推崇“以孝治天下”,并且自古以来母亲在儿女心中的地位神圣不可替代。在这种复杂背景下,画家可以花代母、以墨表心,随意几笔萱草花都可能令观赏者触景生情,产生心理共鸣。

Confucius( the founder of Confucianism) said "filial love ( 孝) is the principle of the universe, the spirit of the land and the most important thing people should do." In order to keep the domination, every emperor in Chinese history praised the idea "Using the filial love to rule the people". Since ancient times, mothers always occupy the very important spot in children ' s heart. Painters often used Daylily to represent the emotional bond between mother and son and easily moved the viewers.

明代王镇墓出土的李在《萱草花图》(图4)有以下题诗:“帘卷薰风夏日长,花含鹄嘴近高堂。筵前介寿双亲乐,颜色辉辉映彩裳。”,从题诗内容看应是庆贺郑仪母亲诞辰的祝寿画。明代才子唐寅也曾作《萱草图》,并题诗:“北堂草树发新枝,堂上莱衣献寿卮。愿祝一花添一岁,年年长庆赏花时。”诗中的“莱衣”即是二十四孝中的“莱子斑衣”。

"The painting of Daylily" (P4) is unearth from the tomb of Wangzheng (Ming dynasty) , which inscribed an poem depicting an merry and harmonious birthday dinner for the painter's parents: on a warm and breezy summer day, a swan with a daylily in its beak were getting close to the parents, which gave them a big laugh. Another famous painter Tang-yin also has painted an Daylily and wrote an poem on it to celebrate his mother ' s birthday.

夏商时期,我国已经开始为成年男子举行冠礼(女子为“笄礼”),即成年礼。先秦时男子的成年礼固定在二十岁,《礼记.冠义篇》写到:“故冠而后服备,服备后而容体正、颜色齐、辞令顺。”成年礼一般都隆重庄严,目的是让行礼者增强成人意识,懂得成年后的责任与重要性。现在,我国早已没有成人礼,不再继承这个优秀传统,失去人生中极具历史意义的里程碑仪式。据说,古代行礼后的男子不能再穿童子彩衣嬉闹,免得失去成人尊严。然而年逾七十的莱子(有一说为年逾八十)身着斑斓彩衣在年迈双亲面前舞蹈、表演,博取老人欢愉。于是,老莱子以孝闻名天下,成为后世之楷模。

Since the period of Xia and Shang Dynasties ( ), a grown-up ceremony will be held when a boy reaches an adult age, which was specifically twenty year-old in Qin Dynasty. The Book of Rites said, “ You are well-dressed only after wearing a adult ' s hat; only with a complete outfit that you can behave decently and speak politely. ” The grown-up ceremony used to be very grand. The purpose of this ceremony is to help a boy to understand the responsibility and the importance as an adult. Now in China, people no longer inherit this tradition. The man after the ceremony are not supposed to dress the colorful children clothes in order to keep the dignity of an adult. But Caizi, at his seventies, dressed a very colorful clothes and dance for his parents to make them happy. So his performance is regard as a model of filial love, and he also becomes the historical celebrity in Chinese history.

图4:李在的《萱草花图》,明1495年前绘制,江苏淮安市明代王镇墓出土。28.2cm×51.2cm,江苏淮安市博物院藏。题“帘卷薰风夏日长,花含鹄嘴近高堂。筵前介寿双亲乐,颜色辉辉映彩裳。 莆田李在为郑仪写。”下钤白文印“自家意思”、“海天秋月”。

P4: Daylily Painting by Li Zai, painted in 1495 Ming Dynasty, unearthed from the tomb of Wang Zhen in Hui An of Jiangsu Province. The painting size is 28.2cm×51.2cm and collected by Huai An Museum. There is an poem in the left corner “ 帘卷薰风夏日长,花含鹄嘴近高堂。筵前介寿双亲乐,颜色辉辉映彩裳。 莆田李在为郑仪写。 ” (On a warm and breezy summer day, a swan with a daylily in its beak were getting close to the parents, which gave them a big laugh.) And two seals is also in the same corner “ 自家意思 ” 、 “ 海天秋月 ”.

(附1:李在 新编《莆田县志》载:“李在,字以政,明江口李厝村人,官云南知县”,“在擅长绘事,精山水,也工人物,后人评他的作品,说:‘山水细润者宗郭熙、豪放者宗夏王圭、马远'”,“墨气淋漓,得烟云日奄霭之趣”,“人物笔致苍古,八面生动,开闽派之先”,“宣德年间,在被召入京,任画院侍诏,与戴进、谢环、石锐、周文靖等同直仁智殿”,“明成化四年(1468年),日本画僧雪舟(小田等物)曾随明使天兴清启来中国,向他学设色,破墨之法,他的技法因之传入日本”。)

由于萱草既有“母亲草”、又有“宜男草”之称,属于宫廷内外喜闻乐见的花草植物,因此它可以与寿石结合在一起,构成“宜男多寿图”(图5、6、7、8),与牡丹结合,组成“宜男富贵”(图9),与石榴结合在一起,构成“宜男多子”(图15)等。

Because Daylily has the meaning of "mother flower" and "boy flower", it is welcomed by the imperial family. And it can be drawn in the painting with the "long-life stone"( 寿石) together to demonstrate the meaning of "more boys and long life".(P5, 6, 7, 8) It also can be put with the peony together to present the meaning of "more boys and more wealth"(P9), and with pomegranate together to express the wish of "a lot of sons".(P15)

图5:传 毛益萱草逰狗图轴。南宋时期作品(12世纪),25.3×25.7cm,奈良大和文化馆藏。绘母狗、小狗与萱草、岩石,绘者将萱草与寿石结合在一起,寓意“宜男多寿”。

P5: Dogs and Daylily Painting by Mao Yi ( 毛益) Painted in South Song Dynasty , 25.3×25.7cm , Collected by Nara Culture Museum. The painter combining the daylily with the long-life stone means more boys and long life.

图6:无款高冠柱石(纨扇画册) 台北故宫藏。 绘画了雌、雄鸡与雏鸡(因图画不太清楚,所以雏鸡不太明显)、萱草、岩石等,该图为成化豆彩鸡缸杯的摹本。

P6: Collected by the National Palace Museum in Taipei. There is a rooster, a hen and chicks in this painting (Chicks can not be seen clearly because the colors have faded). There are also daylily and long-life stone in this painting which is the source of the motif on the Chicken cup in Cheng-hua tou-tsai color.

图7:《明人画鸡轴》。台北故宫藏。

P7: Chicken Painted In Ming Dynasty collected by The National Palace Museum in Taipei

图8-1:竹石萱草图。陈洪绶,立轴绢本设色,纵113.3厘米,横48厘米,南京博物院藏。萱草与寿石结合在一起构成“宜男多寿”图。

P8-1: Daylily, Bamboo and Stone Painting. painted by Cheng Hong Shou ( 陈洪绶 ). 48×113.3cm, collected by Nanjing Museum.

图8-2:竹石萱草图局部。

P8-2: Detail of Daylily, Bamboo and Stone Painting.

图9-1:佚名 胤禛行乐图轴。《清代宫廷绘画》P96。

P9-1: Pleasure of Yin Zhen Painting. from "Painting of the Qing Imperial Court" P96

图9-2:胤禛行乐图轴局部。梅花鹿背驮牡丹、萱草等。

P9-2: Detail of Pleasure of Yin Zhen Painting. The sika deer is carrying the daylily and the peony.

三.与萱草相关的明清官窑瓷 The Daylily motifs on the imperial ceramics of Ming and Qing dynasties

瓷器文饰取材于日常绘画,因此萱草在明清官窑瓷绘画中也经常可以看到。永宣时期最典型的萱草图案器物应是景德镇御厂制作的青花萱草纹玉壶春瓶(图10),雍正时期,御厂也曾制作过相似的“官仿官”釉里红制品,仅是绘画略有出入。宣德的大盘图案多样,其中也使用了萱草纹做主图案,制作了青花、黄地青花、霁青等大盘(图11、12)。

The motifs of the ceramic always refer to the paintings in ancient China, so Daylily motifs is usually used in the imperial ceramics of Ming and Qing dynasties. The most famous Daylily ceramic in Yongle period ( 永乐 1360-1424) is the white-blue Yuhuchun vase. In Yongzheng ( 雍正 1678-1735 ) period, same type ceramics was also made by the imperial kiln. And there is a lot of motif types in the big plate designs in Xuande( 宣德 1398- 1435 ) period. Daylily is also one of them. Some of these plates are blue-and-white, some over-glaze yellow ground with blue glazing, and some celadon.

另外,人们往往注意成化豆彩鸡缸杯中的母子鸡,其实杯中绘画除了表达安逸、团圆、祥和的家庭生活外,还有一层萱草与寿石结合,暗藏的“宜男多寿”寓意(图13)。

Besides, there is a type of cup in Cheng-hua period which is very famous in the Chinese ceramic history. We call it "Cup with design of chickens, rocks and flowers in tou-ts`ai colors". ( 成化窑斗彩鸡缸杯 )The motif of these cups not just show an comfortable, happy and peaceful family life but also use the combination of the Daylily and Long-life stone to suggest a hope of the family can have a boy and family numbers can live a longer life.

图10:永乐青花萱草纹玉壶春瓶。高34.0cm,口径8.8cm。台北故宫博物院。

P10: Daylily motif blue and white vase. Height 3.4cm Diameter of mouth 8.8cm. collected by The National Palace Museum in Taipei

图11:宣德霁青萱草纹大盘。珠山御厂出土。

P11 : Daylily motif blue glazing plate. Xuan De period. Unearthed from Zhu Shan imperial kiln in Jingdezheng.

图12:宣德黄地青花萱草纹大盘局部。珠山御厂出土。

P12 : Daylily motif yellow-ground blue and white plate. Xuan De period. Unearthed from Zhu Shan imperial kiln in Jingdezheng.

图13:成化斗彩鸡缸杯。台北故宫藏。模本源于《无款高冠柱石(纨扇画册)》(图6)。

P13 : Cup with design of chickens, rocks and flowers in tou-ts`ai colors. collected by The National Palace Museum in Taipei

雍乾时期,景德镇御厂以及宫内造办处都制作了不少与萱草有关的瓷器制品。从雍正珐琅彩石榴萱草花鸟图小碗(图14-1)的题诗看,“蝋珠攢作蒂,緗綵剪成藂。”摘选自唐代诗人温庭筠的《海榴(即石榴)》,因此该器中石榴为主题文饰,萱草、岩石等为辅助文饰。石榴象征多子,与“宜男草”一起构成“宜男多子图”(图14-2)。

In the period of Yongzheng, both the imperial kiln in Jingdezheng and Management Office in the Forbidden City make a lot of ceramics with Daylily motif. The bowl with enamel daylily and pomegranate pattern includes a poem about pomegranate written by a famous poet in Tang Dynasty. This bowl uses the pomegranate as the main motif and daylily as the assistant motif with the rock. In ancient China the pomegranate also means the hope of having a lot of boys for a family, so it can be used together with daylily to strengthen the subject.

图14-1:雍正珐琅彩石榴萱草花鸟图小碗。高6cm,口径12.1cm,足径4.6cm,台北故宫藏。落石榴主题诗句。

P14-1 : Pomegranate and daylily motif enamel bowl. Yong Zheng period. Height 6cm Diameter of mouth 12.1 cm Diameter of foot 4.6cm

图14-2:雍正珐琅彩石榴萱草花鸟图小碗。绘者将萱草与石榴结合在一起,寓意“宜男多子”。

P14-2 : Pomegranate and daylily motif enamel bowl. Yong Zheng period.

清代珐琅彩瓷中关于萱草主题的器物多用李峤的“香传少女风(图15)”或“色湛仙人露,香传少女风。”诗句,乾隆时期,造办处设计者对原诗句有所修改,变成“暁藂色湛仙人露,畫檻香傳少女風。”(图16-2)。

In Qing dynasty, the poem “ 香传少女风( P15 ) ” was always used in the daylily motif enamel ceramics. In Qian Long period, the designer modified the poem to “ 暁藂色湛仙人露,畫檻香傳少女風。 ”

图15:雍正珐琅彩萱草图小杯。高2.8cm,口径5.2cm,足径1.9cm,台北故宫藏。落“香传少女风”诗句。

P15 : Daylily motif enamel little cup. Yong Zheng period. Height 5.4cm Diameter of mouth 11 cm Diameter of foot 4.5cm collected by The National Palace Museum in Taipei. with the poem “ 香传少女风 ”

图16-1:乾隆珐琅彩萱草花卉图小碗。高5.4cm,口径11cm,足径4.5cm,台北故宫藏。

P16-1 : Daylily motif enamel bowl. Qian Long period. Height 5.4cm Diameter of mouth 11 cm Diameter of foot 4.5cm

collected by The National Palace Museum in Taipei

图16-2:乾隆珐琅彩萱草花卉图小碗萱草诗面。落“暁藂色湛仙人露,畫檻香傳少女風。”诗句,“佳丽”、“金虎”、“旭映”印章。

P16-2 : Daylily motif enamel bowl. Qian Long period. with the poem “ 暁藂色湛仙人露,畫檻香傳少女風。 ”

乾隆时期除了花鸟之外,虫草绘画也很有很大发展。御厂将萱草与各类昆虫结合(图17、18),使构图更有自然情趣。该类图案中经常辅助绘有石竹花,蕴含了祝寿之意。

In Qianlong period, Chinese painters like to use the insects and grasses as a new type of painting. So the imperial kiln combines the daylily and the insects, making the motif more natural. This motif usually will have the pink as the assistant motif, meaning the long-life.

图17:乾隆粉彩镂空开光花卉图灯罩。高29.7cm,口径10.8cm,足径11.2cm。清宫旧藏。萱草下部绘有石竹花,隐含祝寿之意。

P17 : Flower motif famille rose porcelain lamp shade. Qian Long period. Height 29.7cm Diameter of mouth 10.8 cm Diameter of foot 11.2cm collected by The Palace Museum in Beijing.

图18:道光粉彩石榴禽蝶纹双耳瓶。高30.5cm,口径8.2cm,足径9.9cm。北京故宫藏。该器属于典型的“宜男多子”图。

P18 : Pomegranate with birds and butterfly motif famille rose bottle. Dao Guang period. Height 30.5cm Diameter of mouth 8.2 cm Diameter of foot 9.9cm collected by The Palace Museum in Beijing.


四.总结 Summary

萱草在我国古代是一个集“母亲花”、“宜男草”以及“忘忧草”于一体的文化缩影,纤弱的它既代表了当时社会历史文化的积累与沉淀,又体现出华夏民族中真挚含蓄的母子情感,令人无形中倍感做为炎黄子孙的自豪与骄傲。转身再看经济反展迅速、外国文化不断侵蚀扩充的现代社会,人们对传统文化的认识与继承如同对待母亲草那样,充满无知与叛逆,......。

Daylily in ancient China is a culture image of "mother flower", "boy flower" and "forget sorrow flower". It represents the family culture of ancient China and the sincere emotion between mother and children of our Chinese nation. And it make us feel proud of being Chinese descendants ( 炎黄子孙 ). Nowadays, in Chinese modern society with rapid economic growth and intrusive foreign culture, some people have forgotten our traditional culture just like we have forgotten what the meanings of daylily in our ancient society......

(完)The end

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附录:

1.与萱草相关的历代诗词

伯 兮 诗经·国风·卫风

伯兮朅兮,邦之桀兮。伯也执殳,为王前驱。自伯之东,首如飞。岂无膏沐?谁适为容!
其雨其雨,杲杲出日。愿言思伯,甘心首疾。焉得谖草?言树之背。愿言思伯,使我心痗。

朅(音切):英武高大。殳(音书):古兵器,杖类。长丈二无刃。
膏沐:妇女润发的油脂。杲(音稿):明亮的样子。
谖草:萱草,忘忧草。背:北。指北堂。痗(音妹):忧思成病。

萱草 唐 李咸用

芳草比君子,诗人情有由。只应怜雅态,未必解忘忧。积雪莎庭小,微风藓砌幽。莫言开太晚,犹胜菊花秋。


魏氏园林人赋一物得秋亭萱草 《陈子昂诗集》

昔时幽径里,荣耀杂春丛。今来玉墀上,销歇畏秋风。
细叶犹含绿,鲜花未吐红。忘忧谁见赏,空此北堂中。



《好独酌》 江桐敏

顷米爱独酌,颇得酒中趣。既无酬酢劳,亦无谐谑迕。形骸且自外,肴核岂必具。得酒欣满斟,小醉宜浅注。
近时饮酒人,饮亦循世故。天趣苟不存,焉得安余素。因兹谢朋好,沈冥未为误。油然方酣适,偶念古人书。
全章或遗忘,数语记有余。在口自咀诵.惬理心独娱。定前海石榴,舒丹耀吾庐。其下有萱草,抽花媚阶除。
一觞且独进,慨此芳岁俎。四十而不闻,不饮将焉如。毁誉本无端,闭门省愆尤。穷达自我命,通塞皆有由。
但见得者乐,不见失者忧。得失两不化,身灭愿未酬。有愿必酬之,造物穷其谋。解此颇自得,泛泛此闲鸥。
无酒苦寂寞,有酒不暇愁。将来百无虑,吾当营糟邱。何以观造化,我身来去是。既来就不去,万物同兹理。
荣枯随所值,忘念生忧喜。结则为屯云,散则为复水。千秋万代人,殊途而同归。吾将埋吾轮,沉醉卧不起。
人生如一舟,人小各殊量。置舟风水中,夷险各殊向。顺风与下水,快处乃多妨。得势矜喧阗,失势任飘荡。
一生负重载,终老成空舫。未知收帆时,前途保无恙。家贫苦无书,有书苦不读。中年多遗忘,掩卷如未读。
一心营百虑,螟蟘食嘉榖。亦知求放心,中断烦屡续。独于饮酒时,恬然见来复。



对萱草 唐 韦应物

何人树萱草,对此郡斋幽。本是忘忧物,今夕重生忧。
丛疏露始滴,芳余蝶尚留。还思杜陵圃,离披风雨秋。



萱 唐 李峤

徒步寻芳草,忘忧自结丛。黄英开养性,绿叶正依笼。
色湛仙人露,香传少女风。还依北堂下,曹植动文雄。



示从孙济(济字应物,官给事中、京兆尹)杜甫 (全唐诗 卷216-22)

平明跨驴出,未知适谁门。权门多噂蹋,且复寻诸孙。
诸孙贫无事,宅舍如荒村。堂前自生竹,堂后自生萱。
萱草秋已死,竹枝霜不蕃。淘米少汲水,汲多井水浑。
刈葵莫放手,放手伤葵根。阿翁懒惰久,觉儿行步奔。
所来为宗族,亦不为盘飧。小人利口实,薄俗难可论。
勿受外嫌猜,同姓古所敦。


萱草 宋 苏东坡

萱草虽微花,孤秀能自拔。亭亭乱叶中,一一芳心插。


滿庭芳 黄庭坚

明眼空青,忘忧萱草,翠玉闲淡梳妆。小来歌舞,长是倚风光。
我已逍遥物外,人冤道、别有思量。难忘处,良辰美景,襟袖有余香。
鸳鸯,头白早,多情易感,红蓼池塘。又须得尊前,席上成双。
些子风流罪过,都说与、明月空床。难拘管,朝云暮雨,分付楚襄王。


百忧 孟郊

萱草女儿花,不解壮士忧。壮士心是剑,为君射斗牛。
朝思除国雠,暮思除国雠。计尽山河画,意穷草木筹。
智士日千虑,愚夫唯四愁。何必在波涛,然后惊沉浮。
伯伦心不醉,四皓迹难留。出处各有时,众议徒啾啾。



萱草 宋 苏辙

萱草朝始开,呀然黄鹄嘴。仰吸日出光,口中烂如绮。
纤纤吐须鬣,内冉随风哆。朝阳未上轩,粲粲幽闲女。
美女生山谷,不解歌与舞。君看野草花,可以解忧悴。



萱草 宋 朱熹

春条拥深翠,夏花明夕阴。北堂罕悴物,独尔淡冲襟。


今朝 元 王冕

今朝风日好,堂前萱草花。持杯为母寿,所喜无喧哗。
东邻已藤蔓,西邻但桑麻。 侧闻义士招,我辈■已华。
世事既如此,不乐将奈何?

注:■——上“髟”下“丐”


萱草 明 高启

幽花独殿众芳红,临砌亭亭发几丛。乱叶离披经宿雨,纤茎窈窕擢薰风。
佳人作佩频朝采,倦蝶寻香几处通。最爱看来忧尽解,不须更酿酒多功。


萱草图 明 唐寅

北堂草樹發新枝,堂上萊衣獻壽卮。願祝一花添一歲,年年長慶賞花時。


咏常季庭前萱草 清 姚永概

阶前忘忧草,乃作贵金花。六出向我笑,须端缀粟芽。
君持杯谓我,所忧胡琐琐。酌酒对此花,自计未为左。
我思植瑶草,灌以醴泉流。枝叶日茂美,佩之百疾瘳。
世间闲草木,那得解余愁。斯言傥不遂,愿逐庐遨游。

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